Skip to main content

Full text of "Fruit culture showing the progress of the fruit industry in Canada"

See other formats


^eens University at Kingston 

from the 

QueeM s 



Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis,Mo., U.S.A. ,1904 

Fruit Culture 


Progress of the Fruit Industry 
in Canada 



Superintendent of 
Dominion Government Fruit Exhibits. 

printed by order of 
The HonourabIvE the Minister of Agricui,ture» 
Sydney A. Fisher. 






Fifty years ago Canada bad practically no fruit trade 
worthy the name, and for some years after, the business 
in fruit, that is home grown fruit, was done between the 
fanner and retailer or the consumer. 

The dwellings of many city people of that date were 
surrounded by a garden which almost always contained 
a few apple and other fruit trees, which supplied sufficient 
for the wants of the family and a few over for the wants 
of the neighbourhood or for the market. The large cities 
only, had anything of a fruit trade, and that was carried 
on in connection with some other business during a part 
of the year. Bananas and pineapples at that date were a 
great rarity, and the wholesale grocers were the import- 
ers of lemons and oranges, and of the few Spanish grapes 
that may have reached this side of the world in kegs. 
If the smaller cities and towns had any fruit trade at all, 
it was done directly from the farmer's waggon with the 
consumer, who bought her peck of apples and asked the 
farmer to call the next time he was in town. The city 
gardens of that date are now covered with stores and 
offices or handsome dwellings. Wealth is better dis- 
tributed now than it was then, wages are at least three 
times as high. Middle class people and mechanics had 
not then begun to regard fresh fruit as a necessity. Now 
all that is changed. Fruit is cheap and wages are high. 
The family income is]high, and fruit may always be 


Fruit Culture in Canada 

obtained at a nominal figure. The natural result has 
taken place, a taste for fresh fruit has been acquired. It 
now forms a part of the daily bill of fare and is found 
on almost every table. Hence the enormous traffic in 
fruit. Where formerly the farmer's waggon supplied all 
that was demanded, now whole trains of home-grown 
fruit barely suffice, together with shiploads I of bananas, 
pineapples, oranges, lemons, dates, etc., and while the 
home trade has secured such enormous proportions, the 
export trade has also gone forward with leaps and 

Fifty years ago the export fruit trade of Canada was 
practically non-existent. It was so small as to pass 
entirely unnoticed by the newspapers of the time. 

It is true that a few barrels of ''Fameuse" and 
" Pomme Grise " were shipped, but they were sent 
chiefly as presents to friends in Great Britain, which was 
then familiarly spoken of as the "Old Country" and 
"Home," names that have disappeared from use, so 
self-sufficient have we become. 

The great export trade in fruit of to-day is of com- 
paratively recent growth, but great as itls, it is capable 
of immense extension, and it is to that end that many 
efforts are directed. Fruit Growers' Associations, Con- 
ventions, Experiment Stations, Agricultural Schools and 
Colleges, Expert Lecturers, Government Experimental 
Farms, and Fruit Inspectors, are all doing^their best to 
help the grower to grow the best fruit in the best manner 
and to so handle, pack and ship it, that it shall reach the 
consumer in fine condition, so as to compensate the 
grower and shipper and be creditable to Canada and 
Canadians, so that the million or million and a half of 
barrels of apples exported now may grow into tens of 
millions in the near future. 

Within the immense area covered by the Dominion 
of Canada are included . many different climates, most of 
which are very favorable for fruit growing. The 
unusally fine quality of Canadian apples affords a strong 
proof of the contention that the finer qualities of apples 
are developed near the northern limit of their production. 

Fruit Culture in Canada 


In the east, on the Atlantic coast, the cool sheltered 
valleys of Nova Scotia have from the earliest settlement 
of that country afforded conditions that are congenial to 
a high degree of excellence of the apple. A growing 
appreciation of this fact, has led in late years, to the 
plantation of many extensive orchards, and conse- 
quently to the greatly increased export of apples, which 
have a world-wide reputation. 

In Prince Edward Island the experience of late years 
has demonstrated the fact that many of the choicest 
kinds of apples may be successfully grown, and proximity 
to the seaboard and consequent cheap freights has 
stimulated extended plantation. 

In portions of New Brunswick there are some 
successful orchards ; this province has long been known 
to produce a fine quality of summer and fall apples, with 
some fine winter apples in sheltered situations, and later 
trials have proven that these fine winter kinds may be 
more widely planted with success. In consequence, 
fruit growing is rapidly extending, to the great advantage 
of the province. 

In Quebec, throughout the St. Lawrence Valley, in 
the Eastern Townships, and especially in the neighbour- 
hood of Montreal, large quantities of apples are grown. 
Chief amongst them is the " Fameuse," which is regarded 
as the most delicate of all apples. 

Along the Lower St. Lawrence and on the Island of 
Montreal large quantities of fine plums are produced, 
which find a ready sale in the local markets. 

In Ontario, along the shores of the River St. 
Lawrence, Lake Ontario and Lake Huron, and the 
Georgian Bay locality, soil and climate seem to combine 
to produce a firm solid apple, that keeps and ships well, 
besides having every good q :ality looked for in a high- 
class apple. 

In Western Ontario, especially in the Niagara 
Peninsula and along the shores of Lake Erie, the climate 
is favorable for the growth of the more tender fruits, 
peaches, pears, plums and grapes. Fruit growing is the 
chief occupation in these favored localities. The con- 


Fruit Culture in Canada 

stantly increasing acreage under grapes and the high 
quality of the fruit, bear test mony to the favorable 
conditions of climate which exist there for this luscious 
fruit . 

On the great central plains of the Northwest Ter- 
ritories the larger fruits are not grown successfully^ 
owing to unfavorable climatic conditions, but the small 
fruits are produced in sufficient quantities, equal in 
quality to any that are grown in more favored sections. 

It is highly probable, however, that some of the 
new varieties of the apple which have been produced at 
the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa by crossing 
the wild Siberian crab {Pyrus Baccata), with some of the 
hardiest fine apples will endure the Northwest climate 
without injury. Some of these crosses have already 
borne fruit of fair quality that is excellent for jams and 
preserves, and some of them are of fair size and pleasant 
to eat out of hand. 

If these should prove sufficiently hardy, and it i» 
confidently expected that they will, a new race has been 
created, capable of ever-advancing improvement, that 
will have far-reaching effects, not only for Canada, but 
for similar climates in other parts of the world. 

In the central valleys of British Columbia lying^ 
between the Gold and Coast Ranges the dry atmosphere 
and bright, sunny, summer weather, together with irri- 
gation, concur to produce clean, bright fruit that will 
finally render the apples of this section unapproachable. 

The area under fruit in British Columbia is extend- 
ing rapidly. 

Canada has gained, during recent years, an enviable 
reputation for her fruit in the British markets. This is 
due to strict grading and careful packing, consequent 
upon the enforcement of the provisions of the "Fruit 
Marks Act." This Act demands that every closed 
package of fruit that is offered for sale shall be honestly 
branded, that the fruit shall be uniform in character and 
quality throughout, and shall correspond to the brand 
and face samples. 

Gravknstkin Appi,e Trkk in B1.00M, Grims3Y, Ont. 

Fruit Culture in Canada 



The early French colonists were successful in their 
efforts to introduce apple trees into Canada as early as 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. In 1663 apple 
trees are mentioned as growing on the banks of the 
Dauphin, the L'Equille, and the L'Orignal Rivers, and 
in the neighbourhood of Bassin des Mines, alongside of 
the River des Canards and of the Gaspereaux, where 
they had been planted by- the early colonists from 

Pierre Boucher, writing in 1663, says of the district 
about Montreal : "Xot many trees have been introduced 
from France, except some apple "trees, which bear very 
fine fruit in large quantity, but there are not many of 
these trees yet." 

Nearly a century later, in 1761, the Township of 
Cornwallis, in Nova Scotia, was settled by New England 
people. The new settlers found apple trees of many 
sorts thriving in that valley which had been introduced 
by the French colonists. , Later this industry was gradu- 
ally extended, the area occupied by fruit trees increased, 
and in the course of years new and promising sorts were 
introduced. From these small beginnings have sprung 
the famous modern orchards of the Annapolis and 
Cornwallis Valleys, which now occupy a large area in 
those districts. Among the varieties thus early intro- 
duced, and which still rank among the best productions 
of that part of the Dominion, were the Gravensteen, 
Nonpareil, Golden Russet, Yellow Bellefleur, and Bald- 
win apples. 

Quebec, the oldest of the provinces, was undoubtedly 
the cradle of Canadian Horticulture. Chair plain, in 
1611, wrote: "While I waited for the Indians I had 
ground cleared for two gardens, one in the open country 
and the other in the woods. Here, on the second of 
June, I sowed seeds, which promptly came up, thus 
demonstrating the fertility of the soil." 

But it is to the religious communities that we must 
look for the earliest cultivation of fruit trees and flowers. 


Fruit Culture in Canada 

Their gardens were enclosed by walls, which served not 
only to protect them from marauding Indians, but also to 
shelter the young trees and other plants. 

Boucher, who wrote in 1663, tells of the abundant 
crops of melons and onions grown in the fertile soil of 
Montreal, and, after telling of the incredible quantities 
of strawberries and raspberries found growing wild, and 
which he declared were larger and better flavored than 
the same fruits grown in France, goes on to say — 
" Between Montreal and the Lake of the Iroquois (Lake 
Ontario) there is a large number of fruit trees." Again, 
he says, "We have not many trees from France yet, 
except apple trees, which produce abundant crops of 
beautiful apples, but these trees are not very numerous," 
and ''There is abundance of apples at Quebec, but 
peaches and grapes do not succeed there ; at Montreal, 
on the contrary, these fruits ripen perfectly." These 
grapes and peaches must have been grown on the wall8 
of some of the convent gardens in Montreal, as they 
were still grown until a few years ago. 

In 1798, we have a record of the establishment in 
Quebec, of the first Agricultural Society in Canada, under 
the patronage of Lord Dorchester, tVien Governor-General. 
Among other proceedings recorded at the first regular 
meeting, the importation of fruit trees from Europe 
was authorized. 


In the first decade of the 19th century, Louis Charles 
established a nursery for the propagation and sale of fruit 
trees and plants in Montreal, on the property of Simon 
McTavish, at the foot of the mountain, and advertised his 
trees for sale in the Montreal newspapers of that date^ 

A few years later, in 181'*, Robert Cleghorn, of the 
Blinkbonny Gardens, offered fruit trees and seeds for 

John Hogg, who was probably the originator of the 

Fruit Culture in Canada 


St. Lawrence apple, long known as ''Hogg's Seedling," 
started his nurseries at Montreal about the same time. 

About 1830, L. Guilbault opened his nursery, which 
he called " The Montreal Botanic Gardens." He was 
succeeded by J. E. Guilbault, probably a son, whose 
place was still in existence about 1870. 

By this time several nurseries had been established 
both in Ontario and Quebec, at that time called Upper 
Canada and Lower Canada, so that thenceforward there 
was no lack of them. 


In this the smallest and most easterly province of 
the Dominion, the vahie of fruit growing as an industry 
has only just begun to be appreciated. Although only 
recently entered on the list of fruit growing provinces, 
Prince Edward Island is rapidly coming to the front. A 
progressive fruit growing association has done much 
work in that direction, and has demonstrated the fact 
that many fine shipping apples can be successfully grown 
there, and the experience of those who have taken up 
the industry tentatively, confirms this. Planting is being 
rapidly extended, and hundreds of young orchards are 
being planted. Already trial shipments made to Eng- 
land have fetched good prices, a strong proof of the good 
quality of the apples. Being on the seaboard, Prince 
Edward Island has the advantage of cheap rates to Great 

There are between four and five thousand acres in 
orchard, mostly young trees, with a steadily increasing 
area. In 1901 the quantity of apples produced was 
160,000 bushels. 

There are also 100,000 other fruit trees, chiefly plum, 
pear and cherry, several varieties of grape vines also art 
under trial, many of which have already borne fruit. 

All the small fruits succeed admirably. Prince 
Edward Island strawberries help to keen this luscious 
fruit on the tables of American cities longer than could 
otlierwise be possible. 


Fruit Culture in Canada 


In the Province of Nova Scotia between 3% and 4% 
of the cultivated land is in fruit, and the proportional 
value of fruit, vegetables and nursery stock is over 8% of 
the whole agricultural product. 

There were 34,000 acres in orchard at the last census 
in 1901. The proportional increase since that date is 
probably 20%. The number of apple trees planted in 
orchard is about 2,000,000, (a large proportion of these 
have not come into bearing, ) with a total production of 
over 2,000,0« bushels. There are about 175,000 plum 
trees, 56,000 pear trees, 10,000 peach trees, 62,000 cherry 
trees, all in a high state of production. Grapes are also 
successfully grown, and immense quantities of small 
fruits, strawberries, raspberries, etc., are grown. 

No more favored spot for the fruit industry is to be 
found in Canada than Nova Scotia. It possesses a con- 
genial climate where most of the fruits of the temperate 
zone are grown, without unusual labor, in great abund- 
ance, and, lying on the Atlantic seaboard, the expense of 
shipment to Great Britain, the chief fruit market of the 
world, is reduced to a minimum, so that everything 
seems to favor the Nova Scotia fruit grower. 

The following are among the most highly esteemed 
apples of Nova Scotia : Chief is the Gravenstein, the 
Ribston Pippin, Northern Spy, Cox's Orange, Baldwin, 
King, Nonpareil, Fallawater, Golden Russet and Bishop 

Nova Scotia has the advantage of a long established 
Fruit Growers' Association, which has done much for 
the fruit growing interests of that province, and also to 
establish a reputation for Nova Scotia fruit in foreign 

There is also a School of Horticulture associated 
with the Acadia University. Both of these institutions 
are supported by Government grants. 


As the fruit growing capabilities of New Brunswick 
become better appreciated the area under fruit i« steadily 

Fruit Culture in Canada 


increasing. Experience has shown that many fine 
varieties of the apple may be grown there, that were, up 
to a few years ago, believed to be too tender for that 
province. The area in fruit is about 1% of the cultivated 
area, and the estimated value of the garden and orchard 
product is 3% of the total agricultural product. The 
number of apple trees in the province is nearly a million; 
less than half of these are in bearing, and the produc- 
tion of apples is over half a million bushels. 

In favored situations a few pears are grown, suf- 
ficient to attest the capabilities of the province and the 
suitability of the climate. Plums are most extensively 
cultivated and are of fine quality. The annual produc- 
tion of plums is about 5,000 bushels, but is increasing 

Cherries of fine quality are successfully grown and 
are being extensively planted. The production from 
bearing trees is about 5,000 bushels. The total number 
of trees in orchard is 34,000, 

Grapes are grown to a limited extent and are very 
productive ; the production from bearing vines is 3,000 

In the absence of a Fruit Growers' Association, fruit 
growing interests are attended to by the Farmer's and 
Dairymen's Association of the Province. The Dominion 
Experimental Farm for the Maritime Provinces is avail- 
able for illustrative work on all branches of orchard 
management, and sends out experts and specialists, who, 
at stated times, give practical addresses, which supply 
every need of the several fruit growing districts in that 


Of the cultivated area nearly 1% is in orchard, 
garden, nursery, and vineyard, and the yield from this 
is about 3% of the total agricultural product. There are 
nearly 3,000,000 apple trees in orchard, 1' 500,000 of them 
in bearing, producing about 1,500,000 barrels annually. 

Pear trees are cultivated with some degree of success. 
Only a few varieties, however, are sufficiently hardy to 


Fruit Culture in Canada 

endure the severe winters. The Flemish Beauty " is 
the principal variety grown. There are about 8,000 
trees in orchard ; about one-half of these are in bearing 
and produce about 4,000 bushels of fruit. 

Plum trees are cultivated with fair success, especially 
on the Lower St. Lawrence and on the Island of 
Montreal. There are nearly 500,000 trees, only a small 
portion of them in bearing, producing about 124,000 
bushels. The last census shows a rapid increase in the 
cultivation of plums. 

Cherries. There are nearly 400,000 trees planted, 
a small portion of them in bearing, producing 150,000 

Other fruit trees of several kinds, number about 
25,0C0, with a production of 21,000 bushels of fruit. 

Grapes extend to 119 acres, with 150,000 vines, pro- 
ducing about 995,849 pounds of grapes. 

The Province of Quebec is the home of the far famed 
"Fameuse" apple. This delicious fruit reaches its 
highest excellence in this province, especially on the 
limestone of the Island of Montreal. Its production 
probably' equals the combined product of all the other 
varieties grown in the province. Its popularity, wher- 
ever it has been introduced, is due to its beauty, its 
delightful but indescribable flavor and its crisp, tender 

While many of the fine Ontario apples succeed fairly 
well in Quebec, its specialties are the St. Lawrence, the 
Fameuse, Mcintosh Ked, Winter St. Lawrence, Pomme 
Grise, Wealthy, Canadian Baldwin, etc. These varieties 
are produced of higher flavor and crisper flesh in Quebec 
than anywhere else. 


This is the banner fruit province of Canada, and is 
noted for the extent of its orchards and the variety and , 
excellence of its fruits. It is only within recent years 
that its wonderful resources as a fruit growing province 
began to be fully appreciated and developed. Before 
that time there was no fruit for export, even the home 

Fruit Culture in Canada 


market was very insufficiently supplied. Now fruit 
growing is one of the chief industries of the province. 
Nearly half a million acres of the best soil is given up to 
the production of fruit, and the area is steadily and 
rapidly extending. Each section of the province is being 
gradually devoted to that kind of fruit which it is best 
fitted to produce to advantage. South Ontario and the 
Niagara Peninsula produce grapes, peaches, pears, plums, 
quinces, etc., besides small fruita, while orchards of the 
finest shipping apples are scattered over the whole of the 
province. Jn this way the great capabilities of the 
province are being more fully utilized. 

The area under orchard and garden is 365,851 acres. 

The number of apple trees in orchard in 1903 was 
7,095,554, and the yield of apples was fourteen and a 
half million barrels. The increase in extent of orchard 
ground in two years was over 9,000 acres, with an 
additional half million of young trees planted. 

The vineyard area is 15,269 acres, with over 3,000,000 
grape vines, yielding 25,000,000 pounds of grapes. The 
produce of these vineyards reaches every town and 
village in Canada, and several million pounds are made 
into wine. 

Pears are very largely grown. The bearing trees 
number about half a million and produce about 600,000 
bushels. The pear trees not in bearing number 250,000. 

The bearing plum trees number 815,000, with an 
annual yield of over half a million bushels. The non- 
bearing plum trees number 250,000. 

The bearing peach trees number 775,000, with an 
annual product of 600,000 bushels. The non-bearing 
peach trees number 441,163. 

The other non-enumerated fruit trees, quinces, etc., 
number 48,000, with a yearly product of 40,000 bushels. 

Small fruits, up to 25,000,000 pounds, are annually 
produced. These comprise strawberries, raspberries, 
blackberries, currants, gooseberries, etc. 

Ontario's already large fruit product is multiplying 
rapidly. From the decennial census of 1891 to that of 


Fruit Culture in Canada 

1901 her fruit product tripled, and the ratio of increase 
is even greater at present. 

With its highly fertile soil and delightful climate, 
there seeras to be no limit to the possibilities of the fruit 
industry in Ontario. The range and variety of the fruit 
is very large, and the yield and quality of it is all that can 
be desired. 

Under the enlightened system now pursued by the 
chief fruit growers of the province, and which is 
becoming almost universally prevalent, of spraying to 
prevent and overcome the ravages of injurious insects of 
various kinds, as well as the fungus and other forms of 
disease, which attack and seriously injure the apples, 
pears and other fruits, the quantity of high grade fruit 
has greatly increased, thus augmenting the wealth and 
resources of fruit growers and of the province. 


This province, one of the most thinly settled, pro- 
mises to become one of the most important in point of 
fruit growing. Already some of its orchards exceed in 
size those to be found in any of the other provinces. All 
of the fruits of the other provinces, even the most tender, 
thrive and reach a high degree of perfection there. In 
the brilliancy of coloring, clearness of skin, beauty of 
form, fine size and high flavor, its apples are unrivalled, 
and similar claims may be made for its other fruits. 

The dry atmosphere and bright, sunny weather that 
prevails in the mountain valleys, produce these fine 
effects. In some parts the dryness make irrigation 
necessary. Mountain streams, however, that may be 
utilized are numerous, so that there is no difficulty in 
procuring a sufficient supply of water for this purpose. 

In 1891 only 2% of the cultivated area of British 
Columbia was in orchard and fruit, but since that time 
the area has greatly increased, having advanced from 
1,800 acres of 1891 to nearly 4,000 acres in 1901. The 
increase in the fruit was from 100% to 300% in the 
decade, is very much greater at present, and this increase 

Fruit Culture in Canada 


will continue as markets are made for the fruit, which 
has already gained a high reputation abroad. 

The total number of apple trees in 1901, was : — 
436,644, with a yield from bearing trees of 241,000 
bushels of apples ; peach trees numbered 8,827, with a 
yield from bearing trees of 2,840 bushels ; pear trees 
47,243, with a yield from bearing trees of 26,000 bushels; 
plum trees 88,943, with a yield from bearing trees of 
59,000 bushels, an increase of 300% in the decade. Cherry 
trees numbered 28,212, with a yield of 14,400 bushels; 
other fruit trees numbered 39,822, with a yield of 7,612 
bushels. Grape vines numbered 8,875, with a yield of 
30,182 bushels. Small fruits yielded 648,628 pounds of 

Many of the nut trees also have proved to be capable 
of successful cultivation, so that a great extension of nut 
culture may be confidently expected. 

The shipment of fruit from British Columbia in 
1903 by railway was 250 carloads. This quantity was 
estimated to be equal to 40% of the total crop, so that the 
entire season's crop was about 625 carloads. 

Recognizing the probability of a great future for 
British Columbia, in fruit growing, plans were early 
laid for large trial orchards at the Experimental Farm at 
Agasaiz, B.C., where a great number of varieties of fruit 
trees have been collected duiing the past few years, from 
all parts of the world. This is believed to be the largest 
collection of hardy fruits in existence. It consists of the 
following named varieties : — Apples 1,215, crab apples 
28, pears 559, plums 311, cherries 154, peaches 215, 
apricots 50, nectarines 25, quinces 8, medlars 7, mulber- 
ries 6, — a total of 2,576 different varieties of large fruits, 
which is being constantly augmented. 

The collections of small fruits under trial are also 
very entensive and valuable. 


At each of the experimental Farms on the western 
plains, that for Manitoba, at Brandon, and that for the 


Fruit Culture in Canada 

Northwest Territories, at Indian Head, tests are made 
of the hardiness of the fruits that have been raised by 
cross-breeding and selection at the Central Experimental 
Farm, where many valuable crosses in fruits have been 
made, with the view especially, of overcoming the 
climatic difficulties of that section of the Dominion. 

It is highly probable that some of the new varieties 
of apple which have been originated at Ottawa by cross- 
ing the wild Siberian crab [Pyrus Baccata) with some of 
the hardiest kinds of apples, will endure the Northwest 
climate without injury. Should these prove sufficiently 
hardy, they will be a great boon to the settlers in that 
part of the Dominion. Many of these crosses have 
already borne fruit, and some of them are of fair quality. 
They are of good size and appearance, pleasant to eat 
out of hand and excellent for jams and preserves. 

Should these crosses prove sufficiently hardy, and it 
is confidently expected that they will, a new race will 
have been created, capable of ever increasing improve- 
ment, fraught with good, not only for Canada, but for 
similar climates all over the world. 


The Ontario Provincial Government has established 
a series of Experiment Fruit Stations in different parts 
of the province. These stations are designed to deter- 
mine the suitability of certain sections of the country 
for the various kinds of fruit. They are under the charge 
of a committee of practical fruit growers, who annually 
select some of the most promising of the new varieties 
of fruits for test, and issue annual reports giving the 
results of this work. 

The Agricultural College at Guelph has a Horticul- 
tural Department, where lectures on the theory and 
practice of horticulture are regularly given and experi- 
ments made, with the view of giving the students a 
thorough insight into the best modes of dealing with 
everything pertaining to fruits and fruit growing, also to 
the treatment of diseases and pests of every description 

Fruit Cultuee in Canada 


to which the various kinds of fruit trees, vines and plants 
are subject. 

A large farm also gives ample scope for experiment, 
where practical illustrative work in every department of 
horticulture is carried on. 


The Quebec Provincial Government has established 
a number of Fruit Experiment Stations, with the object 
of testing the hardiness of fruit trees and to awaken an 
interest in fruit growing, especially in the back districts. 
New varieties that are deemed sufficiently hardy are 
added from time to time for trial.. Reports, published in 
French and English, are distributed to all who ask for 

There are three Agricultural Schools in Quebec 
which have, as a part of the course, a class in horticul- 
ture. In two of these schools, that at St. Anne de Poca- 
tiere and that at L'Assomption, the course is in French ; 
that at Compton is in English. 

Besides a number of local associations, there is a 
Provincial Fruit Growers' Association and a very im- 
portant Horticultural Association, with headquarters at 

These all receive grants of money from the Provin- 
cial Government. 

The Provincial Association, called ''The Pomological 
and Fruit Growing Association of Quebec," meets twice, 
a year for discussion and business. 

The Montreal Horticultural Association holds one 
grand exhibition and several minor ones during the year.. 

The local fruit growers' associations, which are 
located chiefly in the Eastern Townships, meet at stated 
times for discussion on subjects pertaining to fruit grow- 
ing and other business. 

The Provincial Government also publishes a weekly 
journal of agriculture and horticulture, which is sup- 
plied to all the members of the agricultural and horti- 
cultural societies. It is published in English and in 


Feuit Culture in Canada 


This Association is now one of the finest organiza- 
tions of its kind in the world, and has a Ust of 5,000 
active members, drawn from all the provinces. 

It was organized in 1859, with a membership of 
eighteen. In 1863 it published its first report, compiled 
from returns sent in from thirty counties in Ontario. In 
1867, when the membership had increased to eighty, the 
society was incorporated, and from that time forward 
received an annual grant from the Provincial Govern- 
ment, which greatly stimulated the activity of its mem- 
bers. The work of the Association has been found so 
useful that this grant has been several times increased. 

In 1877, "The Canadian Horticulturist," a monthly 
p iblication was begun. This magazine, while covering 
the broad field of horticulture, is mainly devoted to the 
dissemination of information relating to fiuit growing 
and kindred subjects. By its means, much information 
on fruit has been collected and distributed among farmers 
and fruit growers. Lists of varieties which have been 
found most useful in the several districts of the province 
have been published, and the fruit yielding capabilities 
of each of them reported on. The growing of long- 
keeping varieties of apples of high quality for shipment 
to foreign markets has been encouraged and new varieties 
introduced. Early in the winter the annual convention 
of this Association is held in some important fruit centre. 
JExperts and specialists are invited to be present to 
address the members and assist in the discussion of 
questions calculated to promote the fruit-growing indus- 
try. Practical papers are presented by some of the more 
active members, who assemble from all parts of the 
J)ominion. A carefully prepared digest of the more 
important matters submitted is published by the Pro- 
vincial Government, and a copy is sent to each member 
of the Association. These reports are widely distributed 
among farmers'throughout the province. 

* The information given to the public through this 
useful organization has given a great impetus to fruit 

Fruit ^Culture in Canada 


growing all over the Dominion. Through it the attention 
of fruit growers has been called to the necessity of pro^ 
ducing such long-keeping sorts of apples as are best 
adapted for shipment to European markets. 


There are about 16,141 acres planted with grape 
vines in the Dominion of Canada, of these 15,000 acrea 
are in Ontario, planted with over 3,000,000 vines, yield- 
ing 25,000,000 pounds of grapes, 90% are sold as fresh,, 
ripe fruit, and the remainder is made into wine. 

The quantity of grapes made into wine in 1902 w^as 
about 3,000,000 pounds which was made into 500,00ft 
gallons of wine. 

The principal wine districts are in South-"\Vesterrs 
Ontario. In several localities in this section large vine- 
yards have been .planted for the special purpose of 
making wine. The industry is a growing one and is 
extending rapidly. Hitherto the product of the Ontaric^ 
vineyards has been consumed chiefly at home. 

Some of the principal vineyards are along the 
Detroit River and on Pelee Island. In a recent season 
over 500 tons of grapes were pressed by the Pelee Island 

As a grape aiid wine producing country the 
capabilities of Ontario are almost incalculable, 

British wine merchants who visited the Pelee Island 
Wine Co's. establishment some years ago, expressed the 
opinion that, with a proper system of manufacture^ 
Ontario might become one of the principal wine pro- 
ducing countries of the Avorld. 

In 1901 there were fourteen wine factories, each 
•employing at least five men and upward. The value of 
the wine made was $289,350. 


An abundance of sweet cider is also made in many 
of the large apple growing districts, which finds a readj/ 
eale in the home markets. 


Fruit Culture in Canada 

Almost every orchard produces more or less cull 
apples, and many of these culls are made into cider and 
cider vinegar. Probably several thousand bushels are 
utilized in this way, as almost every orchard owner 
makes these for his own family and also for sale. This 
manufacture might be indefinitely extended if it were 
not for the manufacture of large quantities of cider that 
has not a drop of apple juice in it, which sadly interferes 
with the manufacture and sale of the genuine article. 


Where fruit is so extensively grown, it is necessary 
to have some means of disposing of the surplus, 
particularly of the perishable sorts. To make the best 
use of these, factories have been established for 
evaporating and canning and also for making jams. The 
business of evaporating fruit, especially apples, has 
developed into large proportions. Establishments for 
this purpose are now found in most of the larger apple 
growing districts. In 1902, about two million pounds 
of evaporated apples were exported, most of it to tropical 
countries, where it w^ould have been impracticable to 
€end the fruit in a fresh condition. 

Many canning factories have been established during 
the past twenty years. The principal fruits canned are 
apples, pears, plums, cherries, strawberries, peaches, 
raspberries, blackberries and gooseberries. Jams are 
are also made in large quantities. There is a large home 
demand for both these classes of goods ; they also form 
an important item in the export trade of Canada. 


The interests of fruit growers in all the provinces 
are assiduously fostered by both the Federal and 
Provincial Governments. Every practicable means 
employed to convey information that will enable fruit 
growers to overcome the various obstacles that would 

Fkuit Cultuke in Canada 


hinder them from producing a fine quaUty of fruit, and 
from placing it on distant markets in fine condition. 

The Federal Government and the several Provincial 
Governments employ experts and specialists to lecture on 
subjects of general importance to the country. 

To fruit growers these lectures treat of methods of 
overcoming insect pests and the various forms of disease 
which attack fruit and fruit trees ; of pruning and 
fertilizing ; of winter cover crops, and, in general, assist 
fruit growers to secure vigorous healthy trees and, 
consequently, a high grade of fruit, besides endeavoring 
to induce them to plant such varieties of fruit as are best 
fitted to satisfy the demands of the trade ; of methods of 
packing and style of packages, - etc. There are also 
discussed at these meetings what is necessary to comply 
with the provisions of the F ruit Marks Act, etc. 


The Department of Agriculture also sends experts to 
the fruit growing centres to instruct orchardists and 
farmers in the use of spraying apparatus, and the 
preparation and use of spraying mixtures, to enable them 
to subdue insect enemies and fungous diseases, and to 
demonstrate the efficacy of the measures adopted, by 
leaving a number of trees in each case untreated. 


The Department of Agriculture has made arrange- 
ments with railway companies to provide refrigerator 
cars for the safe carriage of fruits to their destination, 
also with steamship companies to provide cold storage 
chambers in their vessels, so that fruit may be safely 
carried to distant markets. 

Assistance has also been given to provide suitable 
cold storage warehouses in large fruit centres, where 
fruit can be placed and cooled preparatory to being 
shipped to its destination in refrigerator cars ; by this 


Fruit Culture in Canada 

means better results are obtained than if it were for- 
warded without chilling. 


Agents have been sent to Great Britain and other 
countries to study the requirements of the fruit markets 
there, and ascertain the best course for Canadian fruit 
growers and shippers to pursue to increase the volume 
of trade in these products. 


Most important and far-reaching services have been 
rendered to the fruit growing industry by the Dominion 
Experimental Farms. These farms, five in number, are 
located at widely different points in very different 
climates. At each of them, valuable experimental v\ ork 
has been carried on in connection with fruit growing. 
A large number of varieties of fruit trees and plants have 
been introduced and tested, and their suitability for the 
different sections of Canada determined. Many new 
sorts have also been originated by cross-breeding with 
the hope of finding some specially adapted to the colder 
climates of the Northwest in which the old well known 
sorts have failed. Experiments are conducted to ascer- 
tain the best and most economical methods of caring for 
an orchard, including pruning and thinning, and the 
most effective and economical measures for subdueing 
insect pests and preventing the spread of disease are 
carefully ascertained by practical demonstration. 

Full information on points of interest to fruit 
growers is given in the annual reports ot the Experi- 
mental Farms, and in special bulletins. 

Tiie publications of the Experimental Farms are 
sent free to every farmer who applies for them, and 
thus the information gained on all points is spread 
throughout the length and breadth of the Dominion. 

Fkuit Culture in Canada 


Some idea may be formed of the extent of the 
experimental work now in progress from the number of 
varieties of fruit trees under trial. 

A t the Experi mental Farm for the Maritime Provinces 
at Nappan, N.S., the following numbers of sorts of the 
larger fruits are being tested : Apples, 149; Crab Apples, 10; 
Pears, 30 ; Plums, 51 ; Cherries, 36 ; Peaches, 2 ; Apricots, 
4 ; a total of 282 varieties. 

At the Agassiz farm for British Columbia, there are 
2576 varieties, and this number is receiving annual 

At the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa, there 
are now being tested the following number of varieties : 
Apples, 700 ; Crab Apples, 22 ; Pears, 69; Plums, 160; 
Cherries, 50 ; a total of 971 varieties. This number is 
being constantly increased. 

At each of the Experimental Farms on the Western 
plains, that for Manitoba, at Brandon, and that for the 
Northwest Territories, at Indian Head, tests are made 
of the hardiness of the fruits that have been raised by 
cross-breeding and selection at the Central Experimental 

24 Feuit Culture in Canada 


List of Apples 

Bailey Sweet 
Ben Davis 

Blenheim Pippin 
Blue Pearmain 
Bottle Green hig 
Calville White 
Canada Baldwin 
Canada Red 
Cayuga Redstreak 

Cooper's Market 
Cooper's Russet 
Coxe's Orange 
Cranberry Pippin 
Dodd, P. E. I. 
Dominion Winter 


Gloria Mundi 

Gold Russet 


Greening, R. 1. 



Kentish Fillbasket 



La Salle 



Long Stem Russet 

Lord's Apple 

Maiden's Blush 






Northern Spj* 

Ohio Nonpareil 


Patten's Greening 
Pomme de fer 
Pomme Grise 
Redcheek Pippin 
Red Pearmain 
Red St. Lawrence 
Red Sweet 
Ribston Pippin 
Rome Beauty 
Rox. Russet. 

Scarlet Pippin 

Scott's Red Winter 

Seek No Further 




Sunset Russet 

Swazie Pomme Grise 

Talman Sweet 

Twenty Ounce 







Windsor Chief 

AVine Apple Q 

Winter Arabka 

Winter St. Lawrence 

Wolf River 



Free Farms 



C anadian 

Wheat Belt 

"Disit the 

'Canadian' Building 

Situated North of tKe 
Palace of Af^riculture